The terms depression, schizophrenia, and anxiety are more commonly used today than in the past, but who determined these issues as mental disorders? Even in our world today stigma exists regarding mental health. People do not want to be considered “psycho, mental, crazy” and due to this stigma, many people go untreated for significant mental health disorders. Kansas City offers a variety of options for mental health support and treatment. Treatment does not have to be a negative. In fact, treatment is an absolute positive for the individual struggling with his mental health as well as the people around him who need support in dealing with the residual effects of loving a person with mental health issues. If you are contemplating help for a possible mental health disorder, check out the local links for your options. You are the only one that can make the changes needed to live healthier http://www.mentalhealthkc.org/.
What kind of mental health disorders exist?
Mental health disorders are diagnosed by a licensed professional such as a psychiatrist, psychologist or social worker. The guidelines for diagnostics are written in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). The DSM is a classification system of over 300 mental health disorders and is used by professionals in the field of mental health and psychiatry. Disorders are classified on a multi-axial system of five categories. Axis I is diagnosable clinical mental and learning disorders. Axis II includes personality disorders. Axis III refers to acute medical or physical disorders. Axis IV and V are psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to the disorder and an assessment of functioning. The Axis I and II disorders are the primary focus of psychiatric treatment; however, the additional axis information is also pertinent in considering course of care. Due to the enormous amount of possible diagnoses in the DSM, the following overview condenses the most commonly diagnosed categories.
Anxiety and mood disorders are classified as Axis I in the DSM. Anxiety disorders are characterized by feelings that range from uneasiness to terror. There are different types of anxiety disorders, such as general anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Diagnostic criteria for general anxiety disorder includes excessive worry occurring for more than six months. There is no specific focus of worry for generalized anxiety disorder, but the symptoms are persistent and followed by additional markers such as fatigue and irritability. Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a specific anxiety disorder resulting from witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event. Certain symptoms such as flashbacks, hypervigilance and emotional numbness are associated with PTSD.
Schizophrenia is an Axis I disorder characterized by positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms include bizarre thoughts and hallucinations, while negative symptoms refer to social withdrawal, emotionless expression and diminished motivation. There are five types of schizophrenia diagnoses listed in the DSM-IV-TR, but the American Psychiatric Association indicates that this list will be revised in the new DSM.
Personality disorders are characterized as Axis II disorders grouped into three clusters by commonality in symptoms. Cluster A is composed of odd or eccentric behaviors, cluster B is dramatic and erratic behaviors and cluster C is comprised of anxious and fearful behaviors. The personality disorders impair a person’s functioning in daily life and social relationships. Depending on the specific disorder, the personalities are described as potentially hostile and detached or needy and obsessive. Paranoid personality, antisocial personality and dependent personality are all diagnoses from Axis II personality disorders.
For more indepth information about diagnosed mental health disorders check out this link: http://nmha.org/go/get-info/ . If you would like to meet with a trained clinician, explore this local link for Kansas City therapist’s specialties http://therapists.psychologytoday.com/rms/prof_results.php?city=Kansas+City&state=MO&spec=2.